What we know is that the Levitical Sadducees were not legally of the bloodline of Aaron to Eleazar to Phinchas to Tzadok. Rather, they were more likely of the line of Aaron’s son Ithamar, whose priestly line ended in the days of King Solomon, but they continued seeking priestly legitimacy going back to the days of the Hasmoneans. Consider that they held prominent political and religious appointments that were NOT the rightful and true House of Tzadok in the days of King David.
When Stephen said, “Which of the prophets did your fathers not persecute,” this appears to refer to the Hassidim (Pharisees) or religious loyalists belonging to the religious arm of the Hasmoneans in the years 140 – 50 BCE, which was precisely the time when the Priests of the House of Tzadok were being exiled, executed, and stripped of their ancient spiritual authority. This further validates the House of Tzadok as prophets because they themselves claimed ongoing divine revelation through the Holy Spirit in all their teachings.
When Yeshua revived Lazarus from the dead on the fourth day, it seems that he legitimized the eternal authority of the Genesis 14:18 High Priest and King Melchizedek. With the resurrection of Lazarus (Elazar), it appears to be Yeshua’s declaration that he was Melchizedek who was reviving the Zadokite Priesthood originating with Melchizedek, which was then given to Aaron who passed down his authority to Elazar, to Phinehas, to Zadok, to John the Baptist and finally made complete in and through Yeshua. By believing in Yeshua, we inherit a position among the Sons of Tzadok in the exalted priestly line of Melchizedek through Yeshua, the King, and Priest of Shalem (Genesis 14:18). With Elazar’s resurrection on the Fourth Day, this looks like an allusion to the Malachi 4:2 (Hebrew: 3:20) prophecy of the Angel or Messenger of Yehovah – Melchizedek – who comes with healing in his wings as Tzadok (“Righteousness”) on DAY 4, which is precisely what the Priests of Zadok believed. The story of the fourth-day resurrection of Elazar powerfully appears as a teaching allusion to the Kingdom of Heaven – Shalem, and the resurrection of the Great King – Melchizedek, who is King and Priest of that city spoken of in the Book of Revelation, a city called the New Jerusalem (Revelation 3:12 and 21:2), which is why the Zadok festival calendar was so important to the House of Tzadok (and should likewise be important for all of us too).
Between the Hasmoneans and Yeshua, the Zadokites were considered as good as dead as they were replaced by a new political and religious system controlled by the Hassidim (Pharisees) and Tzadokim (Sadducees).  In the meantime, the House of Tzadok lived out their Prophetic Priestly lives in the Qumran area, “outside the camp,” which is what is written in the Book of Hebrews 13:13-14.
Join us for this concluding summary of the rise, fall, and rising again of the Sons of Tzadok through Melchizedek/Yeshua, King and Priest of Shalem (Genesis 14:18).
This is Real Israel Talk Radio, Episode 141, and PART 27 in the teaching series about Yeshua’s last Passover week chronology and the history of the House and Sons of Tzadok.