Acts 15 is a Torah dispute between Pharisaic believers in Yeshua as the Messiah regarding the role of circumcision for a non-Jew who wants to be in covenant relationship with the God of Israel. In order to understand the issue, a detailed study is done to determine the Biblical meaning and application of circumcision. What has greater Torah weight – circumcision in the heart or circumcision of the flesh ?A sect of Pharisaic believers said it is circumcision of the flesh. Paul argued that it is circumcision of the heart. In order to understand Paul’s position, his teachings on the issue in the New Testament are examined. In Part 2, it is shown that the reason why the dispute was settled in Jerusalem is because this is what the Torah requires. The ruling by James and the brethren was based upon the prophecy in Amos 9:11 to restore the tabernacle of David which is the unification of Ephraim and Judah. The four necessary things given to the non-Jews to observe come from the Holiness laws in Leviticus 17-20. Furthermore, observance of these four necessary things reverses the sins of Ephraim mentioned in the book of Hosea.